Rishi Paṇini of India is one of the greatest person from ancient India. His Contribution in Sanskrit is well known. Maharshi Rishi Paṇini was first to compose Sanskrit Grammar technically.
Rishi Paṇini of India born in 4th century BCE or “6th to 5th century BCE. He was an ancient Sanskrit language grammarian, and a revered scholar in ancient India.
Maharshi Rishi Panini Considered as the father of linguistics. Paṇini may have lived in the northwest Indian subcontinent during the Mahajanapada time.
He is said to be born in Shalatula of Indias ancient Gandhara, a small town at the junction of the Indus and Kabul rivers region in Pakistan.
About Rishi Panini
Pāṇini is also famous for his text Ashtadhyayi, a sutra-style treatise on Sanskrit grammar which includes 3,959 “verses” or we may say rules on linguistics syntax and semantics “8 chapters” which are considered as the foundational text of the Vyākaraṇa branch of famous Vedanga.
His formalization of language which seems to have been an influential in the formalization of music and dance by Bharata Muni. The ideas of Rishi Panini influenced and attracted commentaries from scholars of other Indian religions such as Buddhism and Jainism.
The Aṣṭadhyayi book is the central part of Pāṇini’s grammar, and by far the most complex till now.
The text or book takes material from lexical lists as input and describes algorithms to be applied to them for the generation of the well-formed of words.
It is largely systematised and technical. Inherent in its approach are the concepts of the phoneme which is the morpheme and the root.
More about ASTADHYAYI
The Aṣṭadhyayi was not the first description or book of Sanskrit grammar, but it is the earliest that has survived in full in India. The Aṣṭadhyayi Grammar text became the foundation of Vyākaraṇa, a Vedanga.
Pāṇini made use of some technical metalanguage consisting of a syntax, morphology and aldo lexicon.
The Aṣṭadhyayi text consists of 3,959 sutras or aphoristic threads in total eight chapters. These 8 chapters subdivided into four sections or padas (padaḥ). This text on grammar attracted a famous and one of the most ancient Bhasya (commentary) called the Mahabhasya.
The Shiva Sutras or in other word Mahesvara Sutraṇi are 14 verses that organize the phonemes of Sanskrit language as referred it in the Aṣṭadhyayi of Rishi Paṇini, which is the foundational text of Sanskrit grammar.
Within the tradition they are also called as the Akṣarasamamnaya the redirection of phonemes, but they are popularly known as the Shiva Sutras the reason that they are said to have been revealed to Rishi Pāṇini by Shiva.
After Rishi Pāṇini’s Ashtadyayi, the Mahabhashya is the next big authoritative work on Sanskrit grammar. With contribution of Patanjali the Sanskrit grammar reached at its peak and the linguistic science got its definate form in India.
There were so many Vaiyaakaranaas who were not only linguists but also grammarians before and after sage Panini.
Sage Panini himself refers that about 16 of them. Panini also refers to 16 schools of tradition which is different from that of the 9 grammatical traditions mentioned by Maharshi Valmiki in the Ramayana.