American Revolution History biggest against colonies in detail study

American Revolution

American Revolution History is biggest Revolution. The Revolution inspired all the world which was under the influence of  Colonies at that time.

American Revolution (1765-1783)


    Patriots of (Americans)+ French empire vs. English + Loyalists Colonists = all the people which werewere lived in the British colonies of that times America The ‘Native Americans’ were called as Red ‘Indians’

Colonial history of America

     1492 Columbus reached West Indies Iceland.

     The new world was colonized by European countries powers in 16th and 17th centuries

     13 English colonies were established from 1607 to 1732.

The Aim for setting up, developing and governing the colonies and to give Benefit to their mother country

      Causes of American Revolution Can be broadly divided into following way.

1.Socio-cultural (Enlightenment)


2. Political


3.Economic

America

America

  Socio Cultural Causes

    In America Lot of political and religious dissidents had settled in colonies (escaping persecution in European nation)


   Liberal and progressive thinking was inspired by ideas of Enlightenment


    Ideas like: Natural law, science and rights, Liberalism Property rights ,Republicanism


    John Locke –power comes from the people§ ‘Father of liberalism’

 Immanuel Kant

  Montesquieu

  Benjamin Franklin

  Thomas Paine

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Political Causes

    Colonies had their self appointed legislature and executive

    Head of government- Governor was used to appointed directly by British crown

 There was no representation of colonies in§ Parliament in London

Economic Causes

    The Development of trade and commerce between 13 colonies made them inter dependent to one another and  made them think of themselves as one

     The liberal kind of idea of society affected trade and economy too

Materialistic and individualism

Various kinds of Navigation acts passed by Britain to serve her mercantilist interest at the expense of Colonies :           1.1651 –Use only British ships for trade transport

2.1660 – Sugar, Tobacco, cotton & Indigo exports only to England


3.1663 – All trade to colonies only via England

America



    Colonists got around these laws by smuggling and

But, The enforcement of these laws was not§ very strong so it didn’t hurt the colonists interest too much

After 1763- their enforcement became strict

The Course of Events in Revolution

7 Years’ War (1754-63)


Famous 7 year war  Between Britain and France over territories in America

Spread to 5 continents.

 India – 3rd Carnatic war

France country defeated – Lost most of its territory

Treaty of Paris signed between

After the war –

French threat to colonies was gone

 Britain went into heavy debt

They now planned to tax the Colonists because the war would benefit them to the most(land, resources, security)

Colonists forbidden to settling in newly acquired land

King George III 1760-1820

George

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  The various unpopular ACTS

  Sugar Act 1764 – Sugar to be exported§ only to England and considered as unpopular act.

  Quartering Act 1764 – pay for English§ soldiers stationed in the America, provide them lodging if required

Stamp Act 1765 All legal documents , etand newspapers etc needed to be stamped (that is – give duty) it Affected many lawyers, journalists and even educated people the most !! Protests started – No taxation without representation

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Top 10 George Washington’s Quotes

Sons of Liberty

Formation in 1765

    Organisation was led by Samuel Adams .

    Advocated use the violence, boycott the British goods, trade with Britain

 Formed committee of the correspondence – CRUCIAL LINKS

    Declaratory Act 1766 Stamp act repealed that ‘The king and British parliament have all the essential powers to make laws and tax the colonies in future’

 Townshend Act 1767

 Charles Townshend – :Chancellor of the Exchequer

 Suspended New York’s legislature

  Taxed essential goods – Tea, Paper, glass, Leads & Paint – There were all the ingredients to build a house

 Power to British authorities to search anyones building or vessel

 Boston Massacre 1770

5 protestors killed by British soldiers Publicised heavily by efforts of patriots like Paul Revere and Samuel Adams Turned the public anger and opinion against Crown rule/policies

 Tea Act 1773

     Lord North ,who was new PM of Britain removed all taxes except tax on TEA (mainly to benefit E.I.C.) •

      Protestors refused to let ships which loaded with tea into harbours/ports

The Governor of Massachusetts, Hutchinson declared that he will have ships unload in Boston harbour

Boston

Boston Tea Party Event (16 Dec 1773)

    Group who led by Samuel Adams boarded the ships of EIC and dumped tea which was worth of 10000 pounds in the water

Intolerable Acts 1774

    The Public meetings in town halls was banned

    Boston port too closed.

    Compensation was demanded for the dumped tea

    Quebec act – extended boundaries of the British ruled Quebec

In response to that patriots started training militias for the looming fight with British

1st Continental Congress (Sept 1774)

 The Meeting of representatives of all 13 colonies

The 1st semblance of an ‘American government’

    They decided to boycott British goods and increase the use of domestically produced goods of America

     Stop trade with Britain

Hostilities break out –The American Revolutionary war starts

By April 1775 , fighting started (Lexington and Concord)

 The continental army was lead  General George Washington and

They had support from/of and controlled countryside, while cities were bitterly contested.

      King George 3 was petitioned in July by the Congress to stop oppressive kind laws and avoid full blown war, but he declared the congress as traitors.

     Many Colonists-rich traders in cities benefitting from trade policies- still they favoured British rule. They were called Loyalists

     Common sense, a pamphlet which was written by Thomas Paine was widely circulated in 1775-76

     It advocated for the INDEPENDENCE in simple language with persuasive arguments and reasons

     By early 1776, in all 13 colonies, Patriots had overthrown their existing current governments. Closing courts and driving away to the British officials. They had elected legislatures and new constitutions were also drawn up.

      They declared that they were states now, not colonies of British.

 2nd Continental Congress (1776)

On 4th of July,1776 Golden Day – The Declaration of Independence was adopted at Philadelphia city.

     Thomas Jefferson (!“We hold these truths to be self-evident, that all men are created equal, that they are endowed by their Creator with certain unalienable Rights, that among these are Life, Liberty and the pursuit of Happiness’’!)

      The 2nd Congress oversaw the effort of war and the Patriots were soon supported by French empire, which nearly bankrupted itself supporting the Americans.

      Spain and Netherlands also supported Americans

The American Revolution war ended in October 1781 when General Cornwallis surrendered at Yorktown

American Revolution

 Treaty of Paris 1783

     The War with colonies ended officially with signing of this treaty

     American independence recognized by Great Britain here.

Around 100 thousand soldiers died fighting with colonies mostly due to disease.

 Significance of American Revolution

 Independence of USA – nationalism

     A different type of state formed – it waswmass based, not leader based – Republic

      Anti imperialist nation

     A blueprint for uniting people for a cause

  The Idea of enlightenment found real world application

    “No any American is inherently superior to any other American” (European Society => Birth – ClassSuperiority )

The American Revolution Inspired/led to other revolutions ,especially French and Latin American ones

     British Empire changed its policies in the world over Pitt’s India Act 1784, Cornwallis’ reforms in India.

 US constitution

1st written constitution of world was formed(1789)

Ideals of Liberty, rule of Law

Natural rights of men – Bill of Rights

Separation of powers- Montesquieu

System of checks and balances established.

Criticisms of the American Revolution

 No deep change in society (like French Rev.)

 No universal rights given– only to men holding property (15-20% of total population)

No rights to slaves (which 30% of population) or women

 Importantly, the Power taken from rich white English men and consolidated it into rich white American men

So, It is complete analysis and important points about History of American Revolution that you should know to become Vikasanshil.

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