American RevolutionHistory is biggest Revolution. The Revolution inspired all the world which was under the influence of Colonies at that time.
American Revolution (1765-1783)
Patriots of (Americans)+ French empire vs. English + Loyalists Colonists = all the people which werewere lived in the British colonies of that times America The ‘Native Americans’ were called as Red ‘Indians’
Colonial history of America
1492 Columbus reached West Indies Iceland.
The new world was colonized by European countries powers in 16th and 17th centuries
13 English colonies were established from 1607 to 1732.
The Aim for setting up, developing and governing the colonies and to give Benefit to their mother country
Causes of American Revolution Can be broadly divided into following way.
Socio Cultural Causes
In America Lot of political and religious dissidents had settled in colonies (escaping persecution in European nation)
Liberal and progressive thinking was inspired by ideas of Enlightenment
Ideas like: Natural law, science and rights, Liberalism Property rights ,Republicanism
John Locke –power comes from the people§ ‘Father of liberalism’
Sugar Act 1764 – Sugar to be exported§ only to England and considered as unpopular act.
Quartering Act 1764 – pay for English§ soldiers stationed in the America, provide them lodging if required
Stamp Act 1765 All legal documents , etand newspapers etc needed to be stamped (that is – give duty) it Affected many lawyers, journalists and even educated people the most !! Protests started – No taxation without representation
Advocated use the violence, boycott the British goods, trade with Britain
Formed committee of the correspondence – CRUCIAL LINKS
Declaratory Act 1766 Stamp act repealed that ‘The king and British parliament have all the essential powers to make laws and tax the colonies in future’
Townshend Act 1767
Charles Townshend – :Chancellor of the Exchequer
Suspended New York’s legislature
Taxed essential goods – Tea, Paper, glass, Leads & Paint – There were all the ingredients to build a house
Power to British authorities to search anyones building or vessel
Boston Massacre 1770
5 protestors killed by British soldiers Publicised heavily by efforts of patriots like Paul Revere and Samuel Adams Turned the public anger and opinion against Crown rule/policies
Tea Act 1773
Lord North ,who was new PM of Britain removed all taxes except tax on TEA (mainly to benefit E.I.C.) •
Protestors refused to let ships which loaded with tea into harbours/ports
The Governor of Massachusetts, Hutchinson declared that he will have ships unload in Boston harbour
Boston Tea Party Event (16 Dec 1773)
Group who led by Samuel Adams boarded the ships of EIC and dumped tea which was worth of 10000 pounds in the water
Intolerable Acts 1774
The Public meetings in town halls was banned
Boston port too closed.
Compensation was demanded for the dumped tea
Quebec act – extended boundaries of the British ruled Quebec
In response to that patriots started training militias for the looming fight with British
1st Continental Congress (Sept 1774)
The Meeting of representatives of all 13 colonies
The 1st semblance of an ‘American government’
They decided to boycott British goods and increase the use of domestically produced goods of America
Stop trade with Britain
Hostilities break out –The American Revolutionary war starts
By April 1775 , fighting started (Lexington and Concord)
The continental army was lead General George Washington and
They had support from/of and controlled countryside, while cities were bitterly contested.
King George 3 was petitioned in July by the Congress to stop oppressive kind laws and avoid full blown war, but he declared the congress as traitors.
Many Colonists-rich traders in cities benefitting from trade policies- still they favoured British rule. They were called Loyalists
Common sense, a pamphlet which was written by Thomas Paine was widely circulated in 1775-76
It advocated for the INDEPENDENCE in simple language with persuasive arguments and reasons
By early 1776, in all 13 colonies, Patriots had overthrown their existing current governments. Closing courts and driving away to the British officials. They had elected legislatures and new constitutions were also drawn up.
They declared that they were states now, not colonies of British.
2nd Continental Congress (1776)
On 4th of July,1776 Golden Day – The Declaration of Independence was adopted at Philadelphia city.
Thomas Jefferson (!“We hold these truths to be self-evident, that all men are created equal, that they are endowed by their Creator with certain unalienable Rights, that among these are Life, Liberty and the pursuit of Happiness’’!)
The 2nd Congress oversaw the effort of war and the Patriots were soon supported by French empire, which nearly bankrupted itself supporting the Americans.
Spain and Netherlands also supported Americans
The American Revolution war ended in October 1781 when General Cornwallis surrendered at Yorktown
Treaty of Paris 1783
The War with colonies ended officially with signing of this treaty
American independence recognized by Great Britain here.
Around 100 thousand soldiers died fighting with colonies mostly due to disease.
Significance of American Revolution
Independence of USA – nationalism
A different type of state formed – it waswmass based, not leader based – Republic
Anti imperialist nation
A blueprint for uniting people for a cause
The Idea of enlightenment found real world application
“No any American is inherently superior to any other American” (European Society => Birth – ClassSuperiority )
The American Revolution Inspired/led to other revolutions ,especially French and Latin American ones
British Empire changed its policies in the world over Pitt’s India Act 1784, Cornwallis’ reforms in India.
1st written constitution of world was formed(1789)
Ideals of Liberty, rule of Law
Natural rights of men – Bill of Rights
Separation of powers- Montesquieu
System of checks and balances established.
Criticisms of the American Revolution
No deep change in society (like French Rev.)
No universal rights given– only to men holding property (15-20% of total population)
No rights to slaves (which 30% of population) or women
Importantly, the Power taken from rich white English men and consolidated it into rich white American men
So, It is complete analysis and important points about History of American Revolution that you should know to become Vikasanshil.